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How to Write Critical Reviews of Journal Articles

Writing a critical review of an article published in a scholarly journal is a common assignment for students enrolled in a higher education course. While many students equate the word “critical” with “negative,” this is not necessarily the case; it simply means the review should be objective and examine both the negative and positive aspects […]



How to Read a TXF File

TXF files contain tax data. The format is standard with tax and accounting software. When you have a TXF file, you can easily open it in TurboTax, Microsoft Money, H & R Block At Home and Mint.com software. This is handy when a tax preparer creates a file with your tax information that you would […]



Literacy Specialist Job Description

Literacy specialists, also known as reading specialists, provide a valuable service to beginning and emerging readers. These teachers are specially trained in methods that help children improve their reading skills. Literacy specialists work closely with classroom teachers to design reading programs and provide resources, and identify students in need of extra help. Education and Licensure […]



How to Read an Rpm Gauge

The rpm (revolutions per minute) gauge is an integral part of most vehicles. Whether you are operating your vehicle in a standard fashion or you are attempting to troubleshoot a problem, the rpm gauge can come in handy. Revolutions per minute refers to how many full revolutions something has made, such as an engine in […]



How to Read CAD House Plan Drawings

You’ve got your contractor. You’re excited about your new home or remodel. Then the contractor hands you a set of computer-aided drawings (CAD) and the whole thing looks like Greek to you. If you have trouble reading computer-aided drawings you aren’t alone. Many design and architectural schools have entire classes dedicated to learning how to […]



How to Read Full Books From Google Books

In 2008, the Author’s Guild and other organizations filed a lawsuit against Google books regarding their vast online book collection. Google resolved the lawsuit and looks forward to providing more books online. This allows Internet surfers to continue browsing and reading millions of free books on the Web. Some books display summaries and snippets of […]



How to Read a Navionics Card on a PC

Reading a Navionics card from the comfort of your personal computer enables you to check your Navionics maps from home. Accomplish this by using a USB-compatible Navionics map card reader that enables you to connect your Navionics map card to your computer's USB ports. The linking process typically takes less than five minutes to complete. […]



What Is a Microfiche Reader?

To understand a microfiche reader, you must understand what microfiche is. Microfiche is a storage medium, similar to microfilm. It is a collection of single sheets of film, filled with tiny images of documents or reports that must be read using a special piece of equipment called a microfiche reader. Microfiche was widely used by […]



How to Read Tatting Abbreviations

Here’s the key to reading the abbreviations used in a tatting pattern. Recognize the basics: r(s) = ring(s); ch(s) = chain(s); p(s) = picot(s). Picots can be: sm p = small picot; lg p = large picot; or designated by just a – (dash) = picot. Learn the verbs: j = join; cl = close; […]



How to Read a Thermocouple With a Voltmeter

A thermocouple is a small electrical device that is basically the junction of two wires that are composed of different metals. Because different metals react differently to temperature, an electric potential develops at the juncture. This electrical potential varies with temperature, and therefore the temperature can be calculated when the voltage is known. A voltmeter […]



The Best Nighttime Reading Lights

Reading before bed is more than just a habit for some, it’s a vital element in their ritual before sleep. Often this reading occurs in darkened environments so as not to disturb others who have already nodded off to sleep. This factor places a tremendous amount of importance on the reading lamp to illuminate effectively […]



How to Read a Car Battery Charger

Car battery chargers come in all shapes, sizes, price ranges and options. Reading the information that the switches and gauges are telling you once it’s hooked up to a battery is generally the same no matter what kind of charger you have. You get what you pay for in life, so the more elaborate the […]



How to Read Clarinet Music

When reading clarinet sheet music, it’s important to know that the clarinet reads from the treble staff. Learn how to read a treble staff with help from an elementary school music teacher in this free video on clarinets.



How to Read Expiration Dates on Food Packaging

There are so many dates on food labels that it is often challenging for a consumer to read them. The sell by date is the date that the product needs to be pulled of the shelf of the store. The best if used by date is the date that the manufacturer recommends eating the product […]



My Saltwater Pool Does Not Have a Chlorine Reading

Saltwater generators use dissolved salt in the pool water to create free chlorine that cleans the pool. The chlorine level in a saltwater pool should be around 1 part per million (ppm). If your saltwater pool is not reading any chlorine in the water, don’t swim in the pool. You’ll need to troubleshoot why the […]



How to Read a Stock Ticker

Edward Calahan invented the stock ticker in 1863 and the New York Stock Exchange installed the first stock ticker in 1867. Messengers used to run price updates from the exchanges to brokers’ offices prior to the ticker. You may spot stock tickers scrolling across financial websites or on digital displays inside and outside financial buildings. […]



How to Read Bar Codes Manually

The Uniform Code Council (UCC) generates bar codes known as Universal Product Codes (UPCs) for product identification. Bar codes keep track of inventory and pricing. Manually reading bar codes is possible when you understand what the numbers represent. Study the bar code. The first digit indicates the type of product. Digits 2 through 6 are […]



How to Read NFL Football Odds

There are two outcomes to every NFL game. The first result is on the scoreboard: Which team won and which team lost? The second tally is done by bettors: Which team covered, or beat the point spread? Picking winners and losers against the spread is a popular pastime. Before embarking on this adventure you must […]



What Do Theorists Say About Teaching Children to Read?

Theories for teaching reading skills have changed over the years as research has helped educators understand how children learn and develop. Educators still argue over the best approach to teaching children to read. The most prominent argument in the reading classroom today is phonics versus whole word. However, these are not the only approaches for […]



What Is a Normal Pulse Oximetry Reading?

A pulse oximeter is a medical device that indirectly measures levels of hypoxia. The device senses levels of oxygen saturation in arterial blood using spectral analysis, along with pulse rate. Generally, oximeters are accurate in measuring oxygen saturation between 70 and 100 percent. Significance A pulse oximeter is a medical device that measures levels of […]